Introduced in this writing are concepts which may seem foreign to most people today, though is actually the age-old view among those who have held true to the guidelines of sacred scripture. While this traditional view has been almost completely forgotten by the time of the 20th century, we will observe here those forgotten parameters of interpreting the prophesies.
Sacred scripture is delivered in various literary forms, most of which are rather straight forward historical narratives, instructions & teachings. Even much of the poetic imagery is usually not too difficult to follow, yet there are still many poetic illustrations which are more ambiguous and mysterious within the symbolic & metaphorical design of prophesy language. Being familiar with this particular form of scripture is essential in deciphering the illustrative model of prophesy, and takes a more advanced skill & understanding to interpret.
Even so, the basic concept of biblical interpretation remains the same for all forms of sacred writing. That is the basic principle of biblical context, whether it be the immediate context within the same book or a broader context from another writing; In other words, interpreting the bible with the bible. Making the connections to the original scriptures provides greater clarity & meaning for the New Testament scriptures, and certainly is the essential key to deciphering the prophesy language of Apostle John’s Revelation of Jesus Christ.
The great diversity of interpreting The Revelation is a rather new phenomenon which will be explained shortly. Interpreting The Revelation always had its mystery, but was not always so convoluted. Yet, just like the parables of Jesus, The Revelation is illustrated in a rather encrypted way to be hidden from outsiders while only discernible to God’s Faithful. Unfortunately, the most natural and biblically congruent way to interpret The Revelation has been quite forgotten, as well as the prophetic history that so much of it applies to.
The traditional view refers to fixed reference points which had already been established by the prophets of old. Such critical cross references provide biblical guidelines with vital consistency & continuity for certainty of meaning for each symbol & metaphor imparted through The Revelation. To be clear, roughly 95% of all the symbols and illustrations given in The Revelation had already been established genres of prophesy language from past Hebrew prophets, while the meaning of each genre was well known among God’s people.
By referring to such basic reference points from the scriptures (truly the most objective standard of all), God’s faithful had not been in total darkness when interpreting The Revelation. The nature of predictive prophesy is generally dark & vague until its fulfillment, so as prophetic history progressively unfolded throughout the New Testament era, the prophesies of The Revelation became more clear as they were being fulfilled.
One of the major details of The Revelation of Jesus Christ is the revelation of antichrist. As prophetic history transpired, The Revelation displayed a glaring indictment against the dominating world power which arose from the corruption of Christianity. With each turn of the page, it was becoming quite clear that the spirit of antichrist was manifesting itself through the Papacy of the Roman Church, a reality that even many Catholic’s recognized.
With such realization becoming common knowledge by the time of the Protestant Reformation, the Jesuit Order was then commissioned to protect the interests of the Pope by launching a most sophisticated counter-movement. As the para-military arm of the Roman Church, the Jesuits took control of the Inquisition, invoked secular powers to persecute the reformers, and took control of Protestant states by means of subterfuge. But the most insidious tactics of all involved varieties of subversion within the Protestant movement; And perhaps the most important detail of the Jesuit infiltration strategies was to influence the views of the Reformers regarding prophecies of antichrist.
It took roughly 300 years for the Jesuits to finally penetrate such a firm view of prophesy, but their relentless efforts finally paid off by the 20th century, when alternative doctrines such as Preterism and Futurism carved inroads within the theology of the Reformers, whereby the traditional view has now been almost completely lost and forgotten. For more details on this, see Discerning the Threads of Eschatology
Remembering the Lost Art & Science of Interpreting Prophesy Language and Prophetic History will clarify the biblical parameters for interpreting this form of scripture while serving as an introductory to New Testament prophesy by taking an overview of St. John’s Revelation of Jesus Christ.
While most forms of scripture may generally be interpreted literally, there are many indications that a literal approach is not the way to go about interpreting prophesy language. The cues & clues taken from the prophets of old may govern & guide the understanding of those faithful who diligently apply themselves to the study of scripture to help recognize the meaning of particular symbols and illustrations. Such hieroglyphic representations are not so hard to interpret when connecting them to the same illustrations given through prophets like Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Joel.
Considering also these were Hebrew prophets, so understanding Jewish figures of speech, religious rites, and philosophy is essential. Western thinking too often presumes to make scripture fit its own paradigm, but we need to remember the scriptures were written from a Jewish perspective and the Spirit of God spoke to them in their own language (Acts 26:14).
Sound principles of interpretation based on an objective standard is quite vital. Presuming to impose ones own thoughts, feelings, & opinions upon the scriptures is a subjective standard approach, which may easily dispose one to conclusions much different than what the Spirit of prophesy intended. Such common error is why it is so important for our senses to be guided by the parameters laid out in the scriptures.
Even more fundamental and essential is the cultivation of vital faith & devotion to God. Indeed, righteous living, prayer, and the diligent study of scripture is foundational to receiving the mysteries of God. Remember how the prophet Daniel was endowed with the gift of interpreting dreams & visions, and how such a gift was accompanied with such devout lifestyle:
“…I, Daniel, understood by the books – the number of years specified by the word of the LORD through Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.” – Daniel 9:2
After gaining precise clarity of the duration of Israel’s desolation, through careful study of scripture, Daniel then applied himself to very earnest prayer, and in the midst of such praying, he was visited by the angel Gabriel, who said,
“O Daniel, I have now come forth to give you skill to understand…” Daniel 9:22
With that, Gabriel gave Daniel his own special revelation which not only answered his deep concern & hope for the restoration of Israel, but so much greater than what he had hoped for – the time appointed for the Messiah to make ultimate reconciliation between God and man of all nations! – Daniel 9:24-27
This was not the only time Daniel was blessed with such revelation during his devotion times; And not only was he continually given such mysterious visions but was continually given the means to unlock & understand such mysteries. The same principle of receiving visions with understanding was demonstrated among the other prophets who also applied themselves to earnest devotion in prayer, fasting and study of scripture. To be clear, the prophets did not just passively receive such revelation, but disciplined themselves to become virtuosos of God’s word.
Such virtuoso-prophets foreshadowed the New Testament Church. The Spirit of God before was only given to those privileged to be either priest, prophet or king, yet under the New Testament, all of God’s faithful have been made priests and kings, and empowered by the Holy Spirit to prophesy ( Joel 2:28-32 ~ Amos 7:14-15 ~ Acts 2 ~ Rev 1:5 ).
With such a status, God’s faithful are prompted to advance from the elementary principles of Christ, as the author to the Hebrews encouraged, “…let us go on to perfection” (Heb 6:1). In other words, become virtuosos in implementing the precepts & practices of God. For such advancement cultivates the vitality of faith, as prophesy excites God’s people to a more vigorous & constant devotion. Otherwise, the condition of a passive & idle faith disposes such to the grave danger of falling away, which is exactly why that exhortation to progress was followed with such a striking warning (Heb 6:4-6).
Prophesy therefore is vital for the upkeep of steadfast faith, so endeavoring to understand all forms of prophesy is quite worthwhile, being so highly beneficial, since prophesy encourages God’s people to a more robust & resolute faith so necessary to endure through the trials & tribulations of a hostile world. This rings all the more true when understanding the true meaning of the prophesies of The Revelation.
Getting into the Nitty-gritty of Prophesy Language
The essence of prophesy is the spoken word of God; and since God expresses Himself in a multitude of different forms, no wonder why the meaning of prophesy has such a wide definition. Even certain forms are mixed together, whereby a plain expression may also have an encrypted message which alludes to a future event. Many Messianic prophesies were delivered in this style: Psalm 22, 16:10 ~ 2nd Samuel 7:12-16 ~ Isiah 59:16 ~ Zechariah 13:6, 11:12); as well as references to antichrist: ~ Daniel 8:23-25 ~ Matthew 24:15-21.
Let it be understood that prophesy is not limited to foretelling future events, but certainly involves declaring & explaining what has already been accomplished in the triumph over sin & death, and power of Satan by means of the reconciliation through the life, death, and resurrection of Christ – for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophesy (Rev 19:10). Thus the everlasting Gospel of Jesus Christ is the basis of New Testament prophesy.
Even so, New Testament writings, such as John’s Revelation foretold events which were to take place throughout the New Testament era. Now, I must emphasize that the foretold events of John’s revelation were to take place progressively throughout the New Testament era, commencing shortly after the Revelation was received, since The Revelation says just that in the very opening line:
“The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show His servants– THINGS WHICH MUST SHORTLY TAKE PLACE.” (emphasis added)
The same declaration is reiterated at the end of the book of Revelation in Chapter 22:6, “… and the Lord God of the holy prophets sent His angel to show his servants the things which must shortly take place”.
And in verse 10, “… do not seal the words of the prophesy of this book, for the time is at hand”.
Anyone endeavoring to understand the true meaning given by the Spirit of prophesy better give serious attention to something which is clearly repeated three times. The repetition of this particular time frame is of the utmost importance in recognizing the starting point from which these prophesies were to commence – things which must shortly take place; That would be shortly after John received The Revelation (late first century).
Contrary to popular opinion of the 20th & 21st century, the foretold events of John’s Revelation, such as the divine judgments of the Seven Seals and Seven Trumpets, were not to be understood as being reserved for the very end of the age, but to be a progressive sequence of judgments throughout the ages & stages of the New Testament era. To think otherwise, reduces God to a pacifist throughout two thousand years of the most cruel persecutions upon God’s people. Yet proper interpretation reveals how God walks amidst His Church throughout all times with such providential care to preserve His saints, while inflicting great calamities upon the persecuting powers.
This brings us to the peculiar language used to describe the divine judgments sequenced in The Revelation. We will now examine a few examples of ‘repetitious prophetic models’, or in other words, prophesy genres – to help clarify the intended meaning while correcting the common error of the literal approach to the design of John’s Revelation. By holding true to the consistent model of prophesy language, we can be sure the prophetic images of John’s visions are not to be taken in a literal sense, rather are emblems of certain events.
First off, when the Spirit of the LORD spoke with symbols & metaphors, He was not introducing new concepts, but was communicating in ways which were already familiar. Primitive language was “written” in pictures with symbols & characters of various sorts, and mostly related to the natural world. Large trees were symbols of majesty while grass was a symbol of common folk or youth. A gazelle was a symbol of speed, as a lion a symbol for strength; Water a symbol for life, and blood a symbol for death; Light for good – darkness for evil; Wind for spirit – bone for body; Storm & flood signify war – earthquakes illustrate revolutionary events; Fire, lightening & thunder for divine wrath – favorable weather, good produce & healthy children denote divine blessing.
The sun, moon & stars, being the highest elements of the natural world, were applied to eminent ones of the upper echelon of society. As the chief light, the sun was typically assigned to kings, the moon to queens, and the stars to princes & magistrates. This cosmic model has also been applied to gods, and yet scaled down to smaller facets of society like the family; whereby the patriarch represented by the sun, the matriarch by the moon, and their children by the stars. Hence, there was no question what the symbols meant in Joseph’s dream about the sun, moon & stars bowing down to him; The only question Joseph’s father had was, “Shall your mother and I and your brothers indeed come to bow down to the earth before you?” – Gen 37:9-10.
The ancients were well familiar with such symbols & metaphors, and to this point, the term ‘prophesy language’ is almost a misnomer when such language may simply be called ‘ancient language’. Yet even today, such symbols and figurative language listed above is still often and widely used to articulate with more potency & impact, so we can fully relate to the old cliché – ‘a picture paints a thousand words’. Using such timeless and universal symbols, the God of Israel had arranged these same hieroglyphic elements in such innovative designs to render a calculated impact on the human psyche.
One example of a ‘repetitious prophetic model’, or prophesy genre – is what I call ‘cosmic cataclysm’ – described in the sixth seal of Revelation 6:12-14:
“…there was an earthquake, the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became like blood; And the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree drops its late figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind. Then the sky receded as a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved out of its place.”
Now consider this similar design of Isaiah 34:4: “All the stars of heaven shall be dissolved, the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll; All their stars shall fall down as the leaf falls from the vine, and as fruit falling from a fig tree.”
The context of Isaiah 34:4 indicates this figurative expression represents the toppling of world empires. This particular genre of cosmic imagery was a rather typical style among the prophets of Israel in foretelling the pending doom of worldly kingdoms in opposition to the Kingdom of God. While the above passage is more of a general prophesy towards world empires, and may certainly be applied to the future, we see the same model of imagery applied to certain empires which have already been destroyed, such as the oracle against Egypt in Ezekiel 32:7-8:
“When I put out your light, I will cover the heavens and make its stars dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light. All the bright lights of the heavens I will make dark over you, and bring darkness upon your land, says the LORD God.”
The same design of cosmic imagery is also used in the prophetic predictions concerning the judgment of Jerusalem in Joel 2:10, and the words of our Lord in Matt 24:29. And the same imagery is used to describe the predicted destruction of Babylon in Isaiah 13:10, to illustrate the massive impact of a great empire, being such a fixed pillar of the world, that its downfall was as if the whole universe were collapsing. All these have collectively established a prophetic pattern, as this particular genre of ‘cosmic cataclysm’ always signifies the overthrow of a great kingdom.
So just as past prophesies have alluded to future events, prophesies of future events allude to patterns of past prophesies; And by following such patterns, God’s people are enabled to accurately engage in the interpretation of prophecy. However, anyone attempting to interpret the language of The Revelation without adhering to the same language established through the former prophets has no business teaching The Revelation.
Great empires like Babylon were also described as great mountains, and their fall rendered as a burning mountain – described in Jeremiah 51:25
“Behold, I am against you, O destroying mountain, who destroys all the earth,” says the LORD. “And I will stretch out My hand against you, roll you down from the rocks, and make you a burnt mountain.”
Such prophesy language which illustrates a great empire as a great mountain, which will burn from God’s wrath sheds much light on the second trumpet of Revelation 8:8 — “… and something like a great mountain burning with fire was thrown into the sea…”
Jeremiah’s imagery of a burnt mountain provides a template to help us understand that the burning mountain of Revelation 8:8 is referring to God throwing down a great empire. The rest of the same passage reads, “… and a third of the sea became blood, and a third of the living creatures in the sea died, and a third of the ships destroyed.”
The oracle of Ezekiel 29 gives insight to what is meant by the living creatures in the sea, which likens the fish of the Nile to the inhabitants of Egypt, who would meet the same doom as their Pharaoh; The sea is also a prophetic way of describing the nations (Rev. 17:15). Furthermore, ships being prophetic emblems of commerce & military might, which signify the wealth and strength of such great empires.
Considering the precedent of prophesy language, we should not look for a literal fulfillment of the universe collapsing. Instead, if we follow the consistent patterns of prophetic design, such a reference may guide us to recognize the imagery of the first four trumpets are relating to the fall of a great empire within the New Testament era.
Matching Prophesy with Historical Events
The other aspect of understanding is then guided by knowing history, in order to recognize how these prophesies correspond to historical events. If God is working His purposes throughout history, then all of history is therefore theological and an intrinsic part of divine revelation. Synchronizing prophesy with history is the way prophesy had always been applied up until the 20th century.
This is the way the Jews realized their Maccabean Revolt was the fulfillment of certain prophesies of Daniel. In the same way, the first Jewish Christians validated that Jesus of Nazareth was indeed the Messiah – by aligning particular events of Jesus with particular messianic prophesies. The Gospel of Matthew especially employed this validating method, from start to finish, by assigning a specific messianic prophesy to each and every event he recorded of Jesus. And throughout the New Testament era, Christians were recognizing the progressive fulfillment of prophesy from the book of Revelation.
This method of interpreting prophesy has been known as the Historicist view. Most such scholars of this method, who have discerned within the framework of prophetic patterns, agree that the first four trumpets speak of the spiraling downfall of Imperial Rome. Besides the evidence we already covered, this view is reinforced by aligning the sequence of John’s visions with the sequence of history.
Thus, from the very first visions of things that will happen afterward (Rev 1:19), we may see how well the Seven Seals correspond to the sequence of events from the first century to the fourth; Then we may see how well the Seven Trumpets align with the sequence of events from the fifth century on; The second part of the sixth trumpet is the period concerning the tribulation of the antichrist power, now nearing its end, precedes the seventh trumpet, marking the return of Christ, yet to come.
However, the deviation from such a basic principle of biblical context has led to the futuristic-literalist view of prophesy, which dominates the thinking of today. Consequently, many under the influence of this popular view have been further misled in misunderstanding the prophetic time frame.
This time frame of most significance is introduced in the second part of the sixth trumpet, variably expressed as 1260 days, or 42 months, or three and a half years, also rendered as time, times and half a time. All different ways of rendering the same amount of prophetic days.
Yet, we may find more cues & clues from the prophets of old which designate a day for a year from Ezekiel 4:6 & Numbers 14:34. These are yet more pathways which guide us through the nuances of prophesy language, so we may realize that 1260 prophetic days are actually 1260 literal years. This is just another point of general consensus among those scholars who have held true to the parameters of prophesy language.
This 1260 year time frame is given special attention, being introduced via the little book, which is the second part of the sixth trumpet regarding this period of most significance, which precedes the return of Christ. The same period of time is represented in three different ways in chapters 11, 12 & 13 of Revelation; The two witnesses of chapter 11, the woman flying into the wilderness of chapter 12, and the two beasts of chapter 13. Each vision gives a different rendering of the plight of true saints under the persecution of the antichrist kingdom until the return of Christ.
More than anything else in both the narrative and visions of Daniel, the repetitious elements with the most emphasis pertains to the four succeeding world empires – which ends with Christ’s return to consummate the Kingdom of God on earth for a thousand years. Until that glorious era of the millennial rein of Christ, the providence of God permits Satan to exercise dominion upon the nations while persecuting the saints.
The four successive kingdoms – Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome – rendered as four beasts in Daniels vision
The same four kingdoms of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream rendered as a statue of different metals
The 1260 year period is the most notable time in which the Devil proceeds with great wrath upon God’s people through his antichrist kingdom, which proceeds from the fourth empire of Daniel’s vision. The writings of Daniel, in corroboration with history, makes it quite clear that the fourth & final kingdom of the world is Rome, which would be the kingdom from which the antichrist arises (see The ‘Little Horn’ of Daniel).
This prophetic time frame brings us to the latter part of the eighth century – when that fourth kingdom Rome, which had been virtually extinct for over two centuries, was revived & risen by the subsequent rise of papal power. In a word, the popes of the Roman Church facilitated the revival of the Roman Empire, and ultimately inherited the supremacy of the Caesar’s.
800 A.D. marks the official revival of the Roman Kingdom with the crowning of Charlemagne by his papal counterpart, Pope Leo III. As these two imperial & ecclesiastical powers converged to make a Church/State union, the stage was then set for the next epoch of prophetic history with Papal Rome as the world power.
After a few hundred years of chronic power struggles between the popes and the imperial dynasty, the papacy prevailed to become the supreme ruler of the “Holy Roman Empire“. With intrigues & deceptions, the popes had seized supreme power over the Christian Church & Roman State, which then directed a systematic onslaught upon the true saints of God who opposed the corruptions. These papal persecutions involved crusades, inquisitions, massacres, tortures & executions of the most cruel nature. All commerce with those deemed “heretics” was forbidden and could be subject to the same treatment; thus no one could buy nor sell who was not loyal to the Roman Church Empire.
Such significant historical events of Papal Power thoroughly correspond with the prophesies of the Antichrist Power, which is why there had been such general consensus on this point for centuries among the many learned theologians guided by prophetic patterns. However, what was once so recognized has been forgotten and nearly lost due to the countermoves of Papal Rome.
This antichrist era marks the period of 1260 years in which we are now towards the end, and according to Daniel 12:7, there will be a final blow which signals the completion of this period – when the power of the holy people has been completely shattered, these things shall be finished. It is chilling to contemplate the power of God’s holy people being completely shattered, yet that end marks the time of Christ’s return upon the sounding of the seventh trumpet!
After the visions of the little book and the seventh trumpet, The Revelation imparts another sequence of visions of God’s wrath inflicted upon the beast, or antichrist kingdom. These judgments rendered as the Seven Vials, reveal divine retribution in which God deals with that blasphemous persecuting power.
God’s faithful can take courage in knowing that even in the midst of their suffering, God is striking down that wicked beast, Mystery Babylon, just like God had always done against the enemies of truth & righteousness. God did not wait two thousand years to punish Sodom, or Egypt, or Tyre, or any other enemies of His kingdom, He only allowed them to persist for His wise & providential purposes for a time, and then met their doom.
So, how can we think that God has sat out during the New Testament era for millennia, and had nothing to say or do about any of that history until the last few years?!
That was the question which haunted my thoughts while under the schooling of Futurism. Doesn’t prophesy & providence have anything to say or do about any of that history? So what about the persecutions of Pagan Rome, the multitude of wars & plagues, the onslaught of the Islamic Empire, the fall of Imperial Rome, the rise of Papal Rome and her crusades & persecutions, the Protestant Reformation breaking loose the scriptures, the Napoleonic Wars and end of the Holy Roman Empire & demise of papal dominion, the next rise of papal dominion during World War I & II, and still more as history unfolds?
The Precedent of Providence
The historical precedent which traced how God dealt with Israel and the enemies of Israel should lead us to expect the same providential care for His people throughout the New Testament era. Jesus then affirms the characteristic of God’s speedy judgment in saying, “Shall God not avenge His own elect who cry out day and night to Him, though He bears long with them? I tell you that He will avenge them speedily.” Luke 18:7-8. Therefore, it is inconsistent with historical precedent as well as the character of God to presume the divine judgments of The Revelation would be deferred thousands of years later; Rather, God would only suffer assaults for short duration before striking back with swift retribution.
Likewise, the precedent of prophesy language among the prophets of old may guide us to the correct interpretation of the same language used in The Revelation. Referring to the same illustrations & symbols from the Hebrew prophets reveals consistent meanings to each of the particular genres of prophesy language, so we can be sure what is meant by the same symbols & metaphors of John’s Revelation. Yes, with careful study and logical principles of interpretation, we can find definite meaning, even amidst the multitude of diverse conjectures from post-modern academia.
This should be encouraging for those faithful who have been daunted by numerous opinions of contradicting views surrounding the mysterious language of prophesy. There are indeed sensible patterns to follow in ascertaining the true meaning of these prophesies of The Revelation. Besides the invaluable aid of the Holy Spirit, God has provided practical guidelines for us to follow; In other words, the scriptures are the general blueprints while the Holy Spirit is our personal guide, and one without the other would leave us exposed to the deception of impostor spirits and apostles.
Moreover, there are sensible reasons why the visions given to John were encrypted, since they have to do with certain events such as the bringing down of Rome. If such predictions were clear for all to see, the Christians may very well have been viewed as seditious, whereby providing validation to their persecution.
Besides, should God serve us every truth on a silver platter? Should there not be some truths which were designed to be searched out? I can certainly testify to the potency of a journey by which a process of investigation to turn over & uncover things, find clues, facts, evidence & reason, and put the pieces together to display a picture so certain and so impactful that the trajectory of my faith was dramatically raised.
Just like the prophetic parables of Jesus, the prophesies were designed for the faithful in Christ, to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven ( Matt. 13:11 ), but to be hidden from those obstinate ones devoid of genuine faith. As it says in Daniel 12:10, “… none of the wicked shall understand, but the wise shall understand“
From this introduction starts an exposition of the future prophesies given to St John, which is said to commence shortly after that time. Going verse-by verse, we will consider all detail to recognize what the Spirit of prophesy actually intended, while matching the prophetic sequence with the sequence of history. From the beginning of the series of prophesies delivered in the book of Revelation, we start with the The Seven Seals. Though I do my best to convey difficult truths in the most focused and intelligible way, I do not dumb it down, because there are those few who would not be deterred by difficulty when poised on the things of God. So a quick and easy read – no; But a most blessed & rewarding journey for those diligent saints of God – yes indeed!
To continue to the next part, proceed with The Seven Seals of St John’s Revelation
– Word & Spirit of God, Who Was and Is and Is to come
– Moses Lowman – “Paraphrases and Notes on the Revelation of St. John”
– John Clark Ridpath – ‘Ridpath’s Universal History’
– Charles Daubuz – “A Perpetual Commentary on the Revelation of St. John”
– E H Broadbent – “The Pilgrim Church”
– John Gill – “Gill’s Exposition of the Bible“
– Thomas Newton – “Dissertations of the Prophesies” – Volumes 1-3
– Henry Fliedner – ‘The Martyrdom of a People’ or ‘The Vaudois of Piedmont and Their History‘
– Albert Barnes – “Barnes’ Notes on the Entire Bible
– Theodor Griesinger – ‘The Jesuits: Their Complete History’
– Peter DeRosa – ‘Vicars of Christ: ‘The Dark Side of The Papacy’
– Avro Manhattan – ‘The Vatican Holocaust‘
– Charles Spurgeon – Spurgeon Archive
– Adam Clark – “Clark’s Commentary on the Bible“
– E. Boyd Barrett – ‘The Jesuit Enigma’
– John Cornwall – ‘Hitler’s Pope’
– Ian Paisley – ‘The Pope is the Antichrist‘
– Augustus Toplady – ‘The Road To Rome’
– John Foxe – ‘Foxes Book of Martyrs’
– Joseph Benson – “Benson’s Commentary on Revelation”
– Kenneth Scott Latourette – ‘A History of Christianity’