Coming from the battle of Armageddon, where Christ and His saints execute justice upon both wicked men and wicked spirits, attention is then turned to the chief of all such wickedness: Satan. Revelation 20 opens with the Apostle John’s account of the capture of Satan:
Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, having the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him, so that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years were finished. But after these things he must be released for a little while.
This passage is perhaps the most straight forward and plainly expressed account of all these visions of Saint John. Therefore, it hardly needs any explanation as the meaning is plain to see, though I would not neglect to note key points regarding the greatest revolution in all of history.
– Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven – descending from heaven to earth and commissioned with full power and authority of Christ, the Kings of Kings – having the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand – possessing symbols of bondage – He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years – binding the Devil, otherwise known as Satan, but also the dragon, that serpent of old, which signifies his cunning and insidiously deceptive nature as well as his ancient lifespan.
– and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him – throwing him into the abyss, and not only shutting him up, but sealing him in – so that he should deceive the nations no more – so thoroughly contained that the nations would no longer be led astray into various corruptions by his seductive temptations, nor incited to conflicts and wars by his multiplying intrigues – till the thousand years were finished – for the full duration of the millennial reign of Christ. – But after these things he must be released for a little while – after the completion of the thousand years he would be released for a short season. – must be released – indicates there is a certain purpose for his release, which we will get to later.
Here at this early juncture upon the return of Christ to commence His thousand year reign on earth, His saints have thus far been changed (resurrected) into their perfect state to consummate their complete union with Christ, mercy was shown to some of the wicked to be guests at the wedding feast, Christ and His bride then advance their military campaign against all the wicked men and spirits appointed for destruction, then Satan was bound in the abyss so that he should deceive the nations no more.
Finally we will realize what we have been looking forward to for so long in praying, “Your kingdom come, Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven” (Mat. 6:10). There will be no seducing spirits to promote sinful lifestyles, no tormenting demons, no satanic institutions and governments to cause wars and chaos, there will be true & lasting peace, no longer will the human race as well as the animal kingdom devour each other, resources will not be hoarded; The inhabitants of the earth will be able to produce goods without the threat of being plundered, as prosperity will abound throughout the kingdom, and justice will prevail.
However, there will be those who still remain in their mortal bodies – who still need to learn righteousness. Those who were not ready to be the bride of Christ, but whom God will show mercy to; who are so blessed to be spared from the general destruction and rather be invited to the wedding feast, to then live on the earth under the perfect rule of Christ. And their offspring and successive generations will also need to learn righteousness, so there will be an ongoing learning curve for the growing masses which will involve mishaps that need to be governed.
Yet it will be a perfect government with no loopholes to manipulate, nor any allowance for those who may be inclined to manipulate and corrupt. It will be a theocracy of the all-knowing & all-righteous Most High God – so no case would be mismanaged, wrongly decided, or partial in any way. All the corruptions we hate so much with our current system will be absent, as Jesus Christ will rule and reign with His perfected saints for a thousand years on earth.
In regards to the exact duration of the said thousand years, I do not suppose this to be a figurative millennium, but a literal thousand years – for the following reason: Thus far, the world has labored for six thousand years, so this seventh will be the millennial sabbath. Such perfection fits precisely with the divine order of cycles of seven, which is why many of the early apostolic fathers and saints of latter days have maintained this reasonable position.
Now let us continue with the next passage in verses 4-6, which speak of the saints reigning with Christ for a thousand years:
Verse 4: And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them. Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshipped the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands. And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.
– And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them – The prophet Daniel was given a vision of this same event with extra detail in Daniel 7:9 – “I watched till thrones were put in place, and the Ancient of Days was seated; His garment was white as snow, And the hair of His head was like pure wool. His throne was a fiery flame, Its wheels a burning fire” – and also in Daniel 7:22 – “…until the Ancient of Days came, and a judgment was made in favor of the saints of the Most High, and the time came for the saints to possess the kingdom.”
– Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshipped the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands. And they reigned with Christ for a thousand years.
– beheaded is a euphemism for killed, and is another way of saying martyred, which means a witness who is killed – such are those who overcame him (Satan) by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, and they did not love their lives to the death (Rev 12:11).
– And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years – this is where the expression ‘a martyrs crown’ comes from, as this particular truth has excited so many saints to remain steadfast and even desire martyrdom.
Verses 5-6 conclude the vision of the thousand year reign: But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over such the second death has no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years.
This most certainly is a quite exciting truth and most certainly is something to desire! However, there are some details here which are very difficult to discern with any certainty. Therefore, it is no surprise that their would be some confusion with various opinions on this, which I do not think we should neglect to explore; so let us get into the details, which will involve more cross references
– But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. – One thing that is clear – there will be a second resurrection after this first resurrection – at the end of the thousand years. The account of the second resurrection is coming up in verses 11-15, and one thing that is very clear about that is the judgment upon anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire (verse 15). But what about those who were found written in the Book of Life? Are we to understand that there will be a second body of true Christians who will not be resurrected until after the thousand year reign? Are these the Christians who were not martyred?
Well, included in the judgment of this second resurrection is the Book of Life, which seems to indicate there will be Christians included in the secondary resurrection. However, there are other passages about this same event which seem to indicate all Christians will be of the first resurrection while only the condemned will be of the second. As we turn to the other parts of scripture pertaining to the resurrection sequence, lets remember the first resurrection happens upon the commencement of the thousand year reign while the second resurrection happens at the end of the thousand years:
1 Corinthians 15:22-24: For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive. But each one in his own order: Christ the firstfruits, afterward those who are Christ’s at His coming. Then the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power.
Here we have some kind of resurrection sequence starting with Christ the firstfruits. Next comes the resurrection of the saints – afterward those who are Christ’s at His coming. And finally – the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power. – the end here seems to be referring to the commencement of his reign on earth when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power.
However, the next verses 25-26 stretches to the end of the thousand year reign – For He must reign till He has put all enemies under His feet. The last enemy that will be destroyed is death. Now death will not be destroyed until the end of the thousand years after the second resurrection – so which end is verse 24 referring to? The end of the worldly kingdom, or the end of the thousand years? Some interpret it one way while others interpret it the other way. I do not think it’s clear enough to take a firm stance on either way, but let us move on to the next passage later in the same chapter:
1 Corinthians 15:51-52: Behold, I tell you a mystery: We shall not all sleep, but we shall be changed – in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
Again, there is some questionable detail here. We shall not all sleep could mean not all will remain dead until the second resurrection after the thousand years, but certain saints will be resurrected first upon the commencement of the thousand year reign while the other saints await the second resurrection at the end of the thousand years. Or, We shall not all sleep more likely mean those who are alive in their earthly bodies at the time when Christ returns and then shall be changed. It seems to mean the latter when considering this next passage:
1 Thessalonians 4:15-17: For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord will by no means precede those who are asleep. For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord.
This passage sheds some light on the detail in question from the previous passage of 1 Corinthians 15:51-52, namely the meaning of We shall not all sleep. Here in Thessalonians, it seems to indicate that those who shall not sleep (shall not die) are those who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord – but before they are resurrected into their incorruptible bodies, those who already died will be resurrected first – that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord will by no means precede those who are asleep.
Clearly this is at the time of the return of Christ, and those who already died will rise first, for it says in verse 16 – For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first.
Then, regarding those who are still alive at that time, it says in verse 17 – we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord.
Here is another clear statement that those who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them (them who were dead but resurrected first) in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord.
The sense I get here is that all the saints will be all together; the dead in Christ will rise first. Then those who remain alive shall be changed into their incorruptible bodies, as it says in 1 Corinthians 15:51-52, so there is a second part of the first resurrection upon the return of Christ, shortly after the dead in Christ are first risen. This passage does not give any hint of the resurrection of the saints being partitioned on opposite ends of the thousand year reign.
- Christ the firstfruits,
- afterward those who are Christ’s at His coming. – all the deceased saints are then risen
- Then the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power. – The end referring to the time of Christ’s return to end the worldly kingdoms when those who remain alive are resurrected shortly after the dead are risen first, and caught up together to always be with the Lord, and not separated during the thousand year reign.
Having considered all that, the resurrection sequence may seem rather clear and straight forward; Yet details in Revelation 20 make it more complicated. Verses 4-6 give the impression that only those who die a martyrs death will be of the first resurrection. And the Book of Life seems to indicate another body of saints being part of the second resurrection in verses 11-15. The judgment upon anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire (verse 15) – implies that there are some or many who will be found written in the Book of Life…
Could it be that those deceased saints who were said to rise first in 1 Corinthians 15:51-52 and 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 were the martyred saints only, while those saints who did not die a martyrs death await the second resurrection?
If that is the case, then the resurrection sequence of 1 Corinthians 15:22-24 could mean:
- Christ the firstfruits,
- afterward those who are Christ’s at His coming. – only the martyred saints are then risen
- Then the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power. – The end referring to the end of the thousand years at the time of the second resurrection when the rest of the saints are raised while death and anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire.
However, there are many questions and objections to raise about that idea:
- Did the consummation of Christ and His bride only include the martyrs? Was the bride only in part and not in whole?
- Will those who are martyred, need to wait a thousand years before being united with those who were not martyred?
- What about those saints who remain alive at the return of Christ who did not die a martyrs death?
Perhaps those of the second resurrection who were found written in the Book of Life are all those innocents who never reached the age of accountability and God had mercy on. Or perhaps they are those who did not make themselves ready to be the bride of Christ, and were only the guests who were invited to the wedding feast – those who were given another chance to learn righteousness (Isaiah 26:9) – those who were wicked, yet shown grace (Isa. 26:10), who did happen to learn righteousness during the thousand year reign of Christ, and thus were written in the Book of Life; yet, being in mortal bodies, passed away during that era, to then be raised to life upon the second resurrection.
That makes more sense to me than the former idea, and if that is the case, then it would be easy to explain verses 4-6 of Revelation 20, which speak of those who were martyred for Christ, who were of the first resurrection, who lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.
I think the martyrdom of the saints may simply be a generalization of the saints, and not strictly referring to only those who literally died a martyr, but all who are in Christ – those with the same spirit as the martyrs, who died to sin (1 Pet. 2:24, Rom. 6:11) and died in other ways (Mark 8:34) to remain faithful to Christ. I believe this is the best explanation regarding the first resurrection including all the saints, that is the bride of Christ, not in part, but in full.
Even so, there is just not enough clarity nor enough explanation for me to have a very strong categorical stance on this particular, and though I lean towards all the saints being united throughout the thousand year reign, I do not lean my full weight on it. Thus, it is written, “For we know in part and we prophesy in part.” – 1 Cor 13:9
Now, moving on to another aspect of the thousand year reign of Christ, which pertains to the rule of this era. The Apostle John testifies in verse 4 – And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them – then he speaks of the martyrdom of the saints, and concludes the verse – And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.
So who are they ruling over?
If the saints are then resurrected into their perfect state, then would they really need to rule themselves with a rod of iron?…
I don’t think so. The answer is something we have already touched on:
The common people being ruled by Christ and His saints would be those still in their mortal bodies, who did not make themselves ready to be the bride of Christ, and were only the guests who were invited to the wedding feast – those who were given another chance to learn righteousness (Isaiah 26:9) – those who were wicked, yet shown grace (Isa. 26:10), who would need to learn righteousness during the thousand year reign of Christ, and thus will be ruled with a rod of iron.
In Isaiah 26:9b, it says, “For when Your judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness.” Therefore, it says in the next verse 10, “Let grace be shown to the wicked…” This passage gives much insight as to those inhabitants of the earth during the millennial reign, who are still in their mortal bodies and needing to be disciplined in righteousness. They must be a remnant of the wicked whom God spared from the general destruction to be given another chance to learn righteousness, who would then multiply exponentially under such prosperity of the thousand year reign to quickly repopulate the earth.
However, the next part of verse 10 speaks of the general failure to learn righteousness, “… yet he will not learn righteousness; In the land of uprightness he will deal unjustly, and will not behold the majesty of the LORD.” I’m sure there would be at least a remnant of the population who would learn righteousness (Micah 4:2), but here we are shown that the general population will not learn righteousness, even in a near perfect world (that is a perfect government with an imperfect population), and even without the influence of Satan, they will generally fail to live out genuine faith in God.
Therefore, Satan must be released for a little while, which verse 11 alludes, “LORD, when Your hand is lifted up, they will not see. But they will see and be ashamed for their envy of the people; Yes, the fire of Your enemies shall devour them.” And this brings us to the post millennial events of Revelation 20 regarding the release of Satan in verses 7-10, which includes the final rebellion of Satan as well as his final destruction:
Verse 7: Now when the thousand years have expired, Satan will be released from his prison and go out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle, whose number is as the sand of the sea.
At this time, the inhabitants of the earth will finally be tested by the influence of Satan, as those who failed to learn righteousness will be the most susceptible to his intrigue – Satan will be released from his prison and go out to deceive the nations – and these are the nations which will be from the uttermost parts of the earth during this time – which are in the four corners of the earth – those people indifferent to the righteousness of Christ, who distanced themselves from His majesty.
The decedents of Gog and Magog are representative of the several troublesome nations north of Europe and Asia who were formerly known and generalized as Skythians, then Tartars (Gen 10:2, 14:1, Num 24:7), and seems here that Gog and Magog is applied as a stigmatic name to these troublesome nations of the post millennial rebellion; In the same way, Israel, was called rulers of Sodom and people of Gomorrah (Is. 1:10), and Rome called Babylon (1 Pet. 5:13), since they perpetuated the same rebellious & pagan legacy as those wicked entities before them. Ezekiel’s account of Gog and Magog in chapters 38 & 39 may possibly be the same event as this post millennial rebellion, but it’s uncertain.
Thus, those nations from the uttermost parts of the earth, named here as Gog and Magog, will be seduced by Satan, to gather them together to battle (to organize the rebellion) – whose number is as the sand of the sea. As already mentioned, there would be a mass repopulation of the earth during the millennial reign so this satanic rebellion would be massive.
Verse 9: They went up on the breath of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city. And fire came down from God out of heaven and devoured them.
– They went up on the breath of the earth – very much like the parallel prophesy against Gog of Ezekiel 38:9: “You will ascend, coming like a storm, covering the land like a cloud, you and all your troops and many peoples with you.”
– and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city – Perhaps the camp of the saints is the military camp stationed outside of the beloved city – which is Jerusalem; Yet, we are informed in Revelation 21 that the beloved city is a figurative way of signifying the bride of Christ, so is most likely referring to God’s elect in two different expressions – the saints and the beloved city – which probably also includes their stand at the physical & geographic capital city of Jerusalem. Either way, the basic sense informs us of the advancing rebellion that surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city.
– And fire came down from God out of heaven and devoured them. – Here we are shown an extraordinary display of the awesome power of God which so swiftly consumes this massive rebellion! There is no indication of this being a prolonged battle, but there may be more than just fire involved as fire is so often a symbol of God’s wrath, which may include a broad spectrum of retribution. To this point, let us consider another part of the parallel prophesy in Ezekiel 38:18-23:
“And it will come to pass at the same time, when Gog comes against Israel”, says the Lord God, “that My fury will show in My face. For in My jealousy and in the fire of My wrath I have spoken:
Surely in that day there shall be a great earthquake in the land of Israel, so the fish of the sea, the birds of the heavens, the beasts of the field, all creeping things, and all men who are on the face of the earth shall shake at My presence. The mountains shall be thrown down, the steep places shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the ground. I will call for a sword against Gog throughout all My mountains,” says the Lord God. “Every man’s sword will be against his brother. And I will bring him to judgment with pestilence and bloodshed; I will rain down on him, on his troops, and on the many peoples who are with him, flooding rain, great hailstones, fire, and brimstone. Thus I will magnify Myself, and I will be known in the eye’s of many nations. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.”
Note how the fruit of such retribution not only obliterates evil, but magnifies the majesty of God and proves to the nations, beyond all doubt, the supremacy of the Lord God. The result is the same concerning the destruction of Magog in Ezekiel 39:6-7:
“And I will send fire on Magog and on those who live in security in the coastlands. Then they shall know that I am the LORD. So I will make My holy name known in the midst of My people Israel, and I will not let them profane My holy name anymore. Then the nations shall know that I am the LORD, the Holy One of Israel!”
Moving on to verse 10: The devil, who deceived them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone where the beast and the false prophet are. And they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
We have already observed in the previous chapter the cross references which indicate the spiritual forces behind the beast and the false prophet are the rebel angels and demons who were cast into the lake of fire and brimstone. So now the chief of this cosmic rebellion is finally cast into the lake of fire and brimstone where the beast and the false prophet are, where their condemnation will be permanent, once and for all, with no prospect of any other release as before – And they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
Once the spiritual principalities, powers and rulers of darkness of this age, and spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places is finally and permanently quarantined within the lake of fire, the next vision concludes with the final judgment of God’s physical creation of mankind upon the second resurrection in verses 11-15:
Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; And there was found no place for them. Then I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is the Book of Life. And the dead were judged according to their works, by the things which were written in the books. The sea gave up the dead who were in it, and Death and Hades delivered up the dead who were in them. And they were judged, each according to his works. Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire.
In this concluding vision upon the close of the millennial reign and final containment of the rebel spirits, the Apostle John further testifies – Then I saw a great white throne – communicating great power and dominion, also described as white, which denotes proper & complete righteousness; the overall sense expressing a fully legitimate seat by which justice is perfectly executed.
– and Him who sat on it – is none other than Jesus Christ, just as it is written in John 5:22, “For the Father judges no one, but has committed all judgment to the Son” (also in Jn. 5:27 & 9:39, Acts 10:42 & 17:31). – from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; – Christ, the Alpha and Omega, who, in the beginning, was God who created the heavens and the earth (John 1), is here causing the end of heaven and earth. – And there was found no place for them – the earth and heaven no longer having a place to exist, which includes mankind of the earth as well as the spirits of the air, no longer having any physical sanctuary.
– Then I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and books were opened. – all ranks of people of all walks of life with no place left to hide but to stand before God – to be held accountable for the life they lived as recorded in the books of the divine codex. Romans 3:19: “Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under the law, that every mouth may be closed, and all the world may become guilty before God.” That is to say that no one will have a defense as they stand before the all-righteous standard of God; No one who is judged will be able to protest as if God is not perfectly just.
However, those who have come into covenant relationship with Christ are given a defense attorney, that is Christ Himself (1 John 2:1), Who has paid the price for all violations and shortcomings, and accredited His perfect standard of righteousness to all who abide in Him (1 John 2:2), who will live on with Him. And that brings us to the next book:
– And another book was opened, which is the Book of Life. – the book accounting for the lives of those who were deemed to receive eternal life. We had already jumped ahead to this detail of the Book of Life earlier in this chapter while considering the resurrection sequence, to contemplate the different possibilities of exactly who are those who are raised to eternal life in this second resurrection.
– And the dead were judged according to their works, by the things which were written in the books. – The dead who were raised to stand for an account of their lives were judged according to their works, or in other words, judged by their fruits – “For every tree is known by its own fruit.” (Luke 6:44). Therefore, the fruit of ones life is the evidence of whether or not they exercised genuine faith in God, as all the evidence was written in the books.
– The sea gave up the dead who were in it, and Death and Hades delivered up the dead who were in them. – In prophesy language the sea is illustrative of peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues (Rev. 17:15), who will all be resurrected to be brought forth for judgment. The holding place of the dead called sheol in the Hebrew scriptures finds its equivalent in the Greek New Testament as hades (sometimes translated as hell), as both hades along with other words like sleep and grave are words which denote death. Here, Death and Hades are personified to deliver up the dead who were in them.
– And they were judged, each according to his works (judged according to the evidence of their faith or lack thereof). Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. – Again, Death and Hades personified to receive their just due in being permanently abolished – were cast into the lake of fire. – In 1 Corinthians 15:54-55, the Apostle Paul celebrated this anticipated truth by quoting Isaiah 25:8, “He will swallow up death forever…” – and Hosea 13:14, “O Death, where is your sting? O Hades, where is your victory?”
– This is the second death. – the first death being the physical death, the second death being spiritual death. – And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire. – Here is the final judgment, with no grounds for an appeal, no prospect of release, and no middle ground between eternal life and eternal condemnation. All divine judgment is hereby perfected & complete.
As a result of the consummation of judgment, all sin, all evil spirits, and even death will be banished forever, as such a thorough purging will make way for the great renewal of God’s creation, which we will get to in the next part of Revelation 21-22 – All Things Made New
– Word & Spirit of God, Who Was and Is and Is to come
– Moses Lowman – “Paraphrases and Notes on the Revelation of St. John“
– John Clark Ridpath – ‘Ridpath’s Universal History’
– Charles Daubuz – “A Perpetual Commentary on the Revelation of St. John“
– E H Broadbent – “The Pilgrim Church”
– John Gill – “Gill’s Exposition of the Bible“
– Thomas Newton – “Dissertations of the Prophesies” – Volumes 1-3
– Albert Barnes – “Barnes’ Notes on the Entire Bible
– Peter DeRosa – ‘Vicars of Christ: ‘The Dark Side of The Papacy’
– Adam Clark – “Clark’s Commentary on the Bible“
– Ian Paisley – ‘The Pope is the Antichrist‘
– Augustus Toplady – ‘The Road To Rome’
– Joseph Benson – “Benson’s Commentary on Revelation”